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Nov.2023 14
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How is hydrogen transported?
Details
Hydrogen can be transported using various methods, including:
Compressed Gas: Hydrogen can be compressed to high pressures (typically 350-700 bar) and transported in gas cylinders or tube trailers. This method is suitable for shorter distances and smaller quantities of hydrogen.
Liquid Hydrogen: Hydrogen can be liquefied at very low temperatures (-253°C) and transported in cryogenic tanks. Liquid hydrogen offers higher energy density compared to compressed gas, allowing for larger quantities to be transported over longer distances.
Chemical Hydrides: Hydrogen can be chemically bound to a solid material known as a chemical hydride. These materials release hydrogen when heated or reacted with a catalyst. Hydrogen can be transported by loading and unloading the chemical hydride material.
Pipelines: Similar to natural gas pipelines, hydrogen pipelines can be used for transporting large volumes of hydrogen over long distances. However, dedicated hydrogen pipelines are still limited in availability and typically used in industrial areas or regions with established hydrogen infrastructure.
Ammonia: Hydrogen can also be converted into ammonia (NH3) through a process called Haber-Bosch. Ammonia has a higher energy density compared to liquid hydrogen and can be transported using existing infrastructure, such as ships and pipelines. At the destination, ammonia can be converted back to hydrogen.
The choice of transportation method depends on factors such as distance, quantity, infrastructure availability, and end-use requirements. It's worth noting that the transportation of hydrogen is an active area of research and development as the hydrogen economy continues to evolve.